Unit 2 Crossing limits
本單元的話題是Crossing limits，話題涉及的歷史和地理知識龐雜，給學生理解文章帶來了較大難度。Pre-reading, Reading和Post-reading部分涉及了許多背景知識，這會給學生精讀文章帶來障礙。Warming Up, Listening和Integrating Skills部分涉及到Exploration話題的空間跨度很大，因此解決好中外、過去和現在Exploration的關係可以促進學生理解話題——跨越極限。Speaking和Writing以判斷和勸誘爲主題，旨在通過理解和學習話題，發展學生理解觀點和形成自主判斷，促進學生的自主決策能力。
1．1 WARMING UP 以４位中外航海家的圖片爲引線，引出了本單元人物和話題。４個任務設計層層深入，首先由人物事蹟逐漸導向單元話題——Exploration。最後一個任務把話題引向具體的單元話題的目標語言。
1．2 LISTENING包括Pre-listening, While-listening和Post-listening三個部分。Pre-listening的目的是培養學生聽前預測的能力，這就使得聽的過程目的性很強。Post-listening的兩個任務設計各有側重，任務１強調對聽力內容的整體理解，任務２則側重對話題思想的理解，重在培養學生解決問題的能力。整體上來看，Listening的設計旨在培養學生預測、選擇、判斷和深層加工信息的能力。
1．3 SPEAKING 部分包括三個Situations。三個Situations都是以科學發現和探測爲主題，提出問題情境，旨在培養學生對問題情境的判斷能力和運用語言解決問題的能力。問題的情境設計具有思辨性特徵，學習者只有對問題情境的深刻理解，才能做出準確的判斷，在此基礎上形成決策。
1．4 READING部分包括Pre-reading, Reading 和Post-reading三個部分。 Pre-reading以Silk Road爲主題，輸入背景知識，促進學生對Reading的深刻理解。Reading講述了海上絲綢之路開闢的背景、發展和繁榮，文章的後半部分重點記敘了鄭和下西洋的過程和意義。Reading的主題內容明確，此主題是培養學生民族自豪感的好材料。Reading的語言材料不難，但是由於文章所記敘的內容時間跨度很大，關係略顯複雜，學生不易把握文章的結構。教學中處理好背景知識輸入和讀懂文章整體結構的任務設計，就基本可以很好地完成教學任務。Post-reading是對Reading內容的熟練和主題的拓展，最後一個任務昇華了主題。這些任務設計都要求學生跨越段落尋找信息，因此教學設計中要適當補充和重新設計Tasks，以使得大多數學生都能讀透文章。
1．5 LANGUAGE STUDY 分詞彙和語法兩部分。其中，Word study的前兩個練習序列性很強，兩個練習設計注重詞性拓展和運用。任務中基本涉及到本單元重點詞彙和常見詞彙，但是對學生而言，僅依靠這樣兩個任務設計是不能夠達到熟練的目的，因此應該適當的在Homework或者Integrating Skills部分運用恰當的任務設計來達到使學生能夠熟練運用這些詞彙的目標。Word Study的第三個練習訓練學生在語境中運用詞彙的能力，材料內容補充了本單元話題的背景知識。Word Study基本上呈現出了本單元的重點詞彙，任務形式以訓練爲載體，強調了語言知識的運用能力，因此教學中要細處理。Grammar 則分成兩個Parts. Part 1要求學生要學會識別和判斷Predicate；Part２強調了Predicate在語篇中的運用。由於是複習內容，所以兩個Task的內容設計顯得簡單，可以適當補充一些Tasks來強化學生在寫作過程中準確運用Predicate的能力。
1．6 INTEGRATING SKILLS分爲2部分：Reading 和Writing。Reading記敘了中外Pioneers爬越珠穆朗瑪峯的過程，文章的語言內容不難，不會對學生構成整體的閱讀障礙，但文章中涉及到的一些細節知識需要學生細讀才能準確把握，因此可利用本篇閱讀材料重點培養學生細節理解能力。閱讀材料後的四個任務設計都是圍繞細節理解展開，任務設計採用口頭回答和Paraphrasing的形式，目的是訓練學生的口頭表達能力。Writing部分的內容以閱讀材料爲背景，以爬山是否應該帶氧氣爲主題形成討論，分爲兩種觀點。題目設計同前面Speaking話題相同，訓練學生的思維辨析能力，提高其運用筆頭形式表達觀點的能力。寫作要求學生要拓展話題，瞭解更多的Mountain-climbing事實或實例來支持觀點。因此寫好文章的關鍵重在於事例和事實的採集、整理和分析。
1．8 Checkpoint 2是本單元語言知識的反饋和強化。分爲謂語形式和單元話題詞彙與句式複習兩個部分，此項內容可以作爲反饋練習來強化單元知識。
2．1 教材的Warming Up和Listening兩部分內容相關性很大，Warming Up的材料不僅可以導出單元話題，而且可以利用Warming Up的內容爲Listening鋪墊必要的語言準備。Workbook部分的Listening practice可以被用來補充更多的單元信息和訓練學生的聽力能力。因此可以整合這3部分內容，上一節聽力課。
2．2 Speaking的內容以Exploration爲題，重在培養學生運用思維辨析、判斷和決策的能力，組織語言材料的難度較大。但可以藉助Warming Up的內容和聽力材料爲輔助材料，運用Mind-Map教學策略來幫助學生收集材料，降低難度，上一節口語課。
2．3 Pre-reading, Reading和Post-Reading三個教學環節序列性很強，互爲補充。Integrating Skills的Talking部分同教材Reading部分內容有很大相關性，整合這4個環節，可以設計一節文化背景輸入→閱讀→讀後反思→讀後討論的流線形精讀課。
2．4 LANGUAGE STUDY重在語言知識複習和強化，教學中通過合理設計任務，分類組合，設計一節以語言訓練爲載體的語言知識學習課。
2．5 INTEGRATING SKILLS 的Reading的內容相對簡單，但是在單元教學中作用很大。其內容不僅是對單元話題的拓展，也是對後面寫作內容的鋪墊。通過精處理，拓展話題理解，訓練語言知識，就可以起到承前啓後的作用。
2．6 INTEGRATING SKILLS 部分的寫作設計是對單元話題的總結。語言的輸出方式以Essay載體，以單元主題爲話題，既呼應了SPEAKING，又昇華了主題。
2．7 Work book 的Integrating Skills分爲Reading和Writing兩部分內容，Reading的內容同教材部分Reading的內容的文章結構有相似之處，都是對歷史事件和歷史人物的記敘和評價；Writing以Essay writing 爲主題，呼應教材Speaking和Writing部分。因此可以這兩部分爲載體，上一節綜合實踐課來強化本單元讀寫技能的實踐運用。
1st Period Listening
2nd Period Speaking
3rd Period Reading
4th Period Language study
5th Period Extensive reading
6th Period Writing
7th Period Integrating skills
The First Period Listening
Teaching goals 教學目標
1. Target language 目標語言
explore, exploration, discover, discovery, face risks, face challenges, modern means, equipment
2. Ability goals 能力目標
Enable students to learn that exploring in the past and present are quite different.
3. Learning ability goals 學能目標
Enable students to learn how to compare between the past and present exploring.
Teaching important points 教學重點
Enable students to fully understand the “problem-solution” part in Warming Up and Listening materials.
Teaching difficult points 教學難點
By training listening strategies of prediction and doing shorthand, enable students to form a good habit of listening.
Teaching methods 教學方法
1. Team work learning
2. Task-based learning
Teaching aids 教具準備
A projector and some slides
Teaching procedures& ways 教學過程與方式
Step I Revision (Give reading materials before class)
T: First, let’s check your homework to see how well you have prepared for the class. Now please do the quiz.
1. Who was the first person that mapped the Indian coast?
2. Who was the first person that discovered the “New World”?
3. Why did Abel Tasman sail along the coast of Australia and many islands in the Pacific Ocean?
4. What was James Cook’s purpose of his voyage?
Tasman was to answer questions about the nature of the geography of Pacific Ocean regions during his exploration.
Cook was chosen by the Royal Society of London to undertake a scientific journey to Tahiti to observe and document the event as the planet Venus passed between the earth and the sun. His secret task was to find new landmasses in the south.
StepⅡ Warming Up
Task one: World map exploration
T: Look at the map and tell me how many continents there are in the world. What are they?
Show a world map through slide.
S: There are seven continents in the world. They are Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America and Antarctic.
T: Observe the map carefully and find their separate positions. Tell me which ocean separates Asia from Oceania, and which separates Europe from America. Then tell me which oceans we have to cross if we take the shortest route from China to the east coast of Africa by sea.
S: The Pacific Ocean separates Asia from Oceania and the Atlantic Ocean separates Europe from America. We have to cross the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
Task two: Discuss and answer
T: Work in pairs and discuss the following question?
Question: What were the dangers and challenges that explorers had to face in the past while exploring the world? You can find answers in your reference handout or recall them from your memory.
S: There were a lot of dangers that made their exploration difficult. First, they had to struggle against big storms, icebergs and great rocks that lie unnoticed in the sea. Second, they may easily get ill without fresh vegetables on board. Third, they had to fight against pirates and unfriendly natives.
Task three: List words and expressions
T: Since we have known a lot about exploration at sea, now please recall the words and expressions we just used in talking about exploration. You can also think out these words and expression by using mind-map strategy.
Students recall the words by using mind-map strategy and make the following list.
Step III Pre-listening
Task one: Prediction
T: Now we are going to hear an interview between a reporter and a professor about exploring in the past and at present. Before listening, please think what sort of questions the reporter will ask and list at least three questions.
S: He may ask the following three questions. 1. What communicating tools did they use in the past? 2. How did they store enough fresh water? 3. How did they deal with sickness in the course of exploration in the past?
T: If the reporter raises the above questions, what examples will the professor give to answer the questions?
S: He may give an example of a great explorer and explain the questions.
Task two: Question and answer
T: What modern means can explorers make use of today?
S: They can send messages by radio and take pictures with advanced cameras in space travel. They can also use robots and other advanced equipment to accomplish some dangerous tasks.
Step IV While-Listening
Task one: Listen for the first time and fill in the chart
T: In the tape you are going to hear the differences of communication and transport used in the past and at present. Listen to the tape and fill the chart of exercise 2 on page 11.
Students listen and do the excercise.
Task two: Do shorthand
T: Listen to the tape for the second time and fill in the chart below. Before that you had better read the questions of exercise 3 carefully.
Students listen to the tape and do shorthand.
Step V Post-listening
Task one: Discussion
T: Exploration means advancement. It was Armstrong’s first step on the moon that enables people to know what the real moon is like. Meanwhile, explorations are not without dangers and challenges. Recall your early experiences or choose one topic from the teacher’s list to discuss what dangers or difficulties you may have in the course of exploration. Work in groups of four and list all the possible dangers or difficulties. After that, please find out possible solutions to the problems.
Students discuss in groups and try to find out possible solutions.
S: Take exploring an uninhabited island as an example, we may meet the following dangers and difficulties and we have found out possible solutions to them, as is shown in the below.
Step Ⅵ Listening practice
Task one: Choose the best answers
T: Listen to the tape for the first time and do exercise 2 on page 153.
Students go through the requirement before listening and listen to get the answers.
Task two: Listen and answer questions
T: Listen to the tape for the second time and do exercise 3 on page 153.
Students go through the requirement before listening and find answers to the questions.
Step VII Homework
Task one: Use the following words to make short phrases (eg: evaluate—evaluate the situation)
Words and expressions: evaluate, various, make a decision, in the name of, solve the energy problem, be rich in, take possession of, damage, disturb, available
Task two: Interview some of your classmates and find out if they would like to take part in “A Trip to an Uninhabited Small Island”. Then write a small passage showing different opinions and their reasons. At the end of the passage, you should express your own reason and opinion.
Yesterday I made a survey among my classmates to see if they would like to take part in a trip to an uninhabited island. Their opinions are divided.
About 60% of the students agree to take apart in the exploration. Some believe that exploration will build up their courage. Some girls think the exploration will make their experience richer. And most students are curious about it and take it a good chance to test their ability of independence.
About 40% of students disagree with the idea. The main reason is that it is too dangerous. The rest of the students take no interest in such activities.From my point of view, I think life means to experience. And we can be more independent only when we take a positive attitude towards everything. Therefore, I will take part in it.